This round is no longer accepting investments, but hundreds just like it are live now.

Log In


Hybrid Ground and Aerial Robots

Revolute Robotics is on a mission to keep humans out of harm’s way using a new type of robot that can switch between flying and driving. Revolute’s Hybrid Mobility Robot (HMR) can safely fly in confined spaces without the fear of crashing, and can roll on the ground to operate for 5X longer. By combining the capabilities of traditional robots such as drones and rovers, HMR opens up dozens of novel applications for inspections, security, defense, and more that can reduce the need to put human lives in danger. The company is currently in testing with alpha users with an international patent pending.

This Reg CF offering is made available through StartEngine Capital, LLC. This investment is speculative, illiquid, and involves a high degree of risk, including the possible loss of your entire investment.

$114,534.69 Raised


Revolute Robotics’ HMR is a new class of robots that can switch between flying and driving to collect data in places traditional robots cannot access. HMR can operate longer than indoor drones and can navigate areas rovers can’t traverse.

Inspections in confined spaces are notoriously dangerous, costly, and time-intensive. Revolute Robotics’ HMRs have the potential to reduce the cost and time of inspections by up to 95% while minimizing the need to put human lives in danger.

Revolute Robotics was founded by a serial entrepreneur with nearly a decade of drone industry experience and a robotics modeling expert who worked on hybrid aerial/terrestrial robots for NASA. The company is working with a leading robotics development company to bring the product to life.



A New Type of Robot

Traditional robots like drones and rovers have gained popularity for commercial use, but the limitations of these robots hinder adoption in critical areas. For example, drones made for indoor use have robust mobility in confined spaces, but their higher weights and lower flight times limit their use to smaller spaces. On the other hand, rovers feature long operating times and a high payload capacity, but their lack of mobility around obstacles and on challenging terrain limits their use to mostly flat surfaces. With this in mind, Revolute Robotics set out to create a robot that partners the aerial mobility of drones with the long operating time of rovers in one system that can safely fly in confined spaces and can roll on the ground for 5X longer operating time.

Images used are in the prototype phase of development, the hybrid mobility robot is not currently available on the market.

Two years and over two dozen prototypes later, the company is now testing with alpha users, has an international patent pending, and just held its first live demo with over 90 attendees. 

The team is led by CEO Collin Taylor, who has eight years of experience with commercial drones and was featured in Phoenix Business Journal’s Arizona Innovators Under 25. The technology stems from 4 years of research by Dr. Sahand Sabet, a subject matter expert in robotics modeling who previously worked for NASA JPL on hybrid aerial/terrestrial robots. 

THE Problem & OUR Solution

Life-Saving Robots

Confined space inspections often last weeks, cost hundreds of thousands of dollars to complete, and require inspectors to face dangers such as suffocating, falling from height, exposure to toxic chemicals, and being crushed or trapped by debris. These inspections must be performed regularly to prevent costly equipment failure in places like oil refineries, power plants, chemical factories, and many others. 

Images used are in the prototype phase of development, the hybrid mobility robot is not currently available on the market.

Inspection robots are gaining popularity due to their ability to perform inspections from a safe distance and in a fraction of the time, but the poor mobility and low operating time of existing solutions restricts their use to smaller, less costly inspections. 

HMR’s ground and aerial mobility allow it to inspect larger assets for longer periods of time without the fear of running out of battery or encountering an insurmountable obstacle. This means that inspectors can reduce the time and cost of their inspections by over 95% without putting their lives in danger.  

*This testimonial may not be representative of the experience of other customers and is not a guarantee of future performance or success.

The Market & Our Traction

A Sky-High Market

Revolute Robotics is entering into a fast-growing market, the commercial drone market, which is projected to grow at a CAGR of 57.7%, reaching over $500 billion by 2030 (source). The company is initially focused on Confined Space Inspections and plans to work directly with inspection companies that service customers across an array of industries, including Oil & Gas, Power, Chemicals, Mining, and Utilities, using similar technologies and procedures. This allows Revolute Robotics to enter multiple markets with the same core technology without the complexity and overhead required to service each market individually.

*This testimonial may not be representative of the experience of other customers and is not a guarantee of future performance or success.

The company plans to offer two purchasing options: direct product sale with an optional subscription for data analysis, and a Robot-as-a-Service (RaaS) model in which the hardware and software are expensed over time, enabling a faster sales cycle and more predictable recurring revenue.  

Why Invest

Building A Better Future

Revolute Robotics is building a new generation of robots that have the potential to redefine how robots are used in our daily lives. They are on a mission to keep humans out of harm’s way and have found a strong need for their solution in the inspection, security, and defense industries. Their initial target market is large and quickly growing and the company is already experiencing great success with their alpha users.  

Images used are in the prototype phase of development, the hybrid mobility robot is not currently available on the market.

The need for this technology was realized by co-founder Sahand Sabet while working on hybrid aerial/terrestrial robots for NASA JPL. This inspired Sahand to dedicate his PhD dissertation to the modeling, design, and control of hybrid robots, earning him the Student Innovator of the Year award from the University of Arizona. With little more than a few simulations, the concept was awarded funding to build the first prototype Hybrid Mobility Robot which was successfully accomplished in 2021.

Today, over two dozen prototypes in various shapes and sizes have been built and tested and the company has begun alpha testing with local construction and inspection firms. 

Revolute Robotics is working with Guinn Partners to bring HMR to market, allowing them to utilize the talents of a wide range of engineers for faster and more cost-effective development than hiring an entirely in-house team. The company enlists the guidance of 05 Advisors who help navigate the challenges of rapid innovation, iteration, and launch. Revolute Robotics is also backed by the Techstars, Plug & Play, and Newlab accelerator networks and receives considerable support from the McGuire Center for Entrepreneurship and the University of Arizona Center for Innovation.


Images used are in the prototype phase of development, the hybrid mobility robot is not currently available on the market.

Join Revolute Robotics on our mission to make dangerous jobs safer, faster, and less expensive with a new generation of robots!


14459 N 110th Pl
Scottsdale , AZ 85255

Revolute Robotics is on a mission to keep humans out of harm’s way using a new type of robot that can switch between flying and driving. Revolute’s Hybrid Mobility Robot (HMR) can safely fly in confined spaces without the fear of crashing, and can roll on the ground to operate for 5X longer. By combining the capabilities of traditional robots such as drones and rovers, HMR opens up dozens of novel applications for inspections, security, defense, and more that can reduce the need to put human lives in danger. The company is currently in testing with alpha users with an international patent pending.


Collin Taylor
Collin Taylor
CEO & Co-Founder

Collin has been in the commercial drone industry for nearly a decade working closely with dozens of inspection drones and customers. He is a serial entrepreneur passionate about implementing new ideas and finding a way to succeed when the path isn't clear. Collin received Phoenix Business Journal’s Arizona Innovators Under 25 award and received his B.S. in both Finance and Entrepreneurship from the University of Arizona. 

Leandro Valdez III
Leandro Valdez III
Chief Operating Officer

Leandro previously worked for Amazon’s Operations Department leading teams of over 100 employees and several managers simultaneously. He was responsible for reducing missed shipments by over 1000%, saving the company an average of $200,000 each month during his tenure. Leandro is a First-Generation Mexican American who received a B.S. in Supply Chain and Operations Management from the University of Arizona. He is a skilled leader in Continuous Improvement (CI) initiatives and is certified as a Scrum Master.  

Guinn Partners
Guinn Partners
Development Partner

Guinn Partners is the development group led by Colin Guinn, who designed the Phantom 1 and Inspire 1 drones for DJI which became the best-selling non-military drones in the world and have remained so ever since. The group also developed the Solo drone for 3D Robotics, leading to over $65m in revenue in just three years, and the Autopilot software for Hangar Technologies, which was the most downloaded flight planning app on the DJI app store for several years. Guinn Partners has also developed and brought products to life for Autel Robotics, LIFT Aircraft, Doosan Mobility, Vantage Robotics, AirSelfie, and many others. 

Guinn Partners contributes 1-2 hours per week on Revolute Robotics

Colin Guinn

Colin Guinn

Strategic Advisor

Colin Guinn is the Co-Founder and former CEO of DJI North America, the former CRO of 3D Robotics, and the Founder of Hangar Technology. He was the first person to bring a drone into Congress; he’s been featured on 60 Minutes, ABC, NBC, CBS, and Forbes, among others; and he’s taught industry leaders such as Elon Musk, Richard Branson, and Jeff Bezos about drone and robotic technology. Colin has been foundational in propelling the global consumer and commercial drone markets, and he provides guidance to startups and Fortune 500 companies alike. 

Colin Guinn contributes 1-2 hours per week on Revolute Robotics

David Stewart

David Stewart

Operations Advisor

David is a seasoned executive and founder in the Education Technology space. He has extensive experience with statistical analysis, extrapolating meaningful and actionable insights from noisy data, and leading the implementation of innovative strategies. Prior to founding and successfully exiting his EdTech startup Tembo, David served as an executive for The Princeton Review, McGraw-Hill, and the New York City Department of Education. David now serves as a consultant in the EdTech space and an investor and advisor for early-stage technology startups. 

David Stewart contributes 1-2 hours per week on Revolute Robotics

Mike Miles

Mike Miles

Product Advisor

Mike is a former Microsoft Executive and career Program Manager with over 30 years of experience in Product Development, Team Building, and Strategic Planning. During his tenure at Microsoft, Mike was responsible for leading the Bing product launch in 75 markets – growing international search revenue by over $700M, building and leading teams in 10 countries, and leading 8 startup ventures both inside and outside the company. Mike currently serves as an Investor, Advisor, and Board Member to technology startups. 

Mike Miles contributes 1-2 hours per week on Revolute Robotics

Ellen Beldner

Ellen Beldner

Product Advisor

Ellen is an experienced Product Design and Product Management executive. She has over 20 years of experience in Human-Computer Interaction, UX Research, Design Thinking, and Product Strategy working for companies such as Google, Youtube, LinkedIn, and Stitch Fix. Ellen is currently a partner at 05 Advisors and a fractional executive who works with A- and B-series startups to develop their product, innovation, and design practices.

Ellen Beldner contributes 1-2 hours per week on Revolute Robotics

Robyn Tosick

Robyn Tosick

Strategic Advisor

Robyn is a Forbes-featured entrepreneur who launched one of the fastest-funded crowdfunding campaigns of its time. After holding corporate leadership roles at Lululemon, PepsiCo, & Coca-Cola, Robyn founded four companies and an Entrepreneurship group for Female Founders. Robyn now serves as a Purpose and Mindfulness Coach, Speaker, and Entrepreneurship Teacher at the University of Arizona.

Robyn contributes 1-2 hours per week on Revolute Robotics

Mark Beaver

Mark Beaver

Legal Advisor

Mark is a practicing corporate attorney and founding partner of Gabell Beaver, LLC. He has over 23 years of experience implementing legal strategies to protect business owners, maximize long-term wealth, and find solutions to complex legal issues. Mark specializes in mergers and acquisitions, equity and debt offerings, fund formation, and venture capital transactions. Over his career, Mark has represented both buyers and sellers in over 100 acquisition transactions and worked on over $500 million of private equity and debt placements. 

Mark contributes 1-2 hours per week on Revolute Robotics


Revolute Robotics
Sep 13, 2023
$15k - $1.23M
Common Stock
Common Stock

Maximum Number of Shares Offered subject to adjustment for bonus shares

Most Recent Fiscal Year-End

Prior Fiscal Year-End

Total Assets



Cash & Cash Equivalents



Accounts Receivable



Short-Term Debt



Long-Term Debt



Revenue & Sales



Costs of Goods Sold



Taxes Paid



Net Income



*Maximum number of shares offered subject to adjustment for bonus shares. See Bonus info below.

Voting Rights of Securities Sold in this Offering

Voting Proxy. Each Subscriber shall appoint the Chief Executive Officer of the Company (the “CEO”), or his or her successor, as the Subscriber’s true and lawful proxy and attorney, with the power to act alone and with full power of substitution, to, consistent with this instrument and on behalf of the Subscriber, (i) vote all Securities, (ii) give and receive notices and communications, (iii) execute any instrument or document that the CEO determines is necessary or appropriate in the exercise of its authority under this instrument, and (iv) take all actions necessary or appropriate in the judgment of the CEO for the accomplishment of the foregoing. The proxy and power granted by the Subscriber pursuant to this Section are coupled with an interest. Such proxy and power will be irrevocable. The proxy and power, so long as the Subscriber is an individual, will survive the death, incompetency and disability of the Subscriber and, so long as the Subscriber is an entity, will survive the merger or reorganization of the Subscriber or any other entity holding the Securities. However, the Proxy will terminate upon the closing of a firm-commitment underwritten public offering pursuant to an effective registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933 covering the offer and sale of Common Stock or the effectiveness of a registration statement under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 covering the Common Stock.

Investment Incentives & Bonuses*

Time-Based Perks

Friends and Family - First 72 hours | 15% bonus shares

Super Early Bird - Next 72 hours | 10% bonus shares

Early Bird Bonus - Next 7 days | 5% bonus shares

Volume-Based Perks

Tier 1 Perk — Invest $500+ and receive 2% bonus shares

Tier 2 Perk — Invest $1000+ and receive 3% bonus shares

Tier 3 Perk — Invest $5,000+ and receive 4% bonus shares

Tier 4 Perk — Invest $10,000+ and receive 5% bonus shares

Tier 5 Perk — Invest $25,000+ and receive 10% bonus shares

Tier 6 Perk — Invest $50,000+ and receive 15% bonus shares

*In order to receive perks from an investment, one must submit a single investment in the same offering that meets the minimum perk requirement. Bonus shares from perks will not be granted if an investor submits multiple investments that, when combined, meet the perk requirement. All perks occur when the offering is completed.

The 10% StartEngine Owners' Bonus

Revolute Robotics, Inc. will offer 10% additional bonus shares for all investments that are committed by investors that are eligible for the StartEngine Crowdfunding Inc. OWNer's bonus.

This means eligible StartEngine shareholders will receive a 10% bonus for any shares they purchase in this offering. For example, if you buy 100 shares of Common Stock at $1.61 / share, you will receive 110 shares of Common Stock, meaning you'll own 110 shares for $161. Fractional shares will not be distributed and share bonuses will be determined by rounding down to the nearest whole share.

This 10% Bonus is only valid during the investors eligibility period. Investors eligible for this bonus will also have priority if they are on a waitlist to invest and the company surpasses its maximum funding goal. They will have the first opportunity to invest should room in the offering become available if prior investments are canceled or fail.

Investors will receive the highest single bonus they are eligible for among the bonuses based on the amount invested and time of offering elapsed (if any). Eligible investors will also receive the Owner’s Bonus in addition to the aforementioned bonus.

Irregular Use of Proceeds

The Company might incur Irregular Use of Proceeds that may include but are not limited to the following over $10,000: Vendor payments. Salary payments made to one’s self, a friend or relative. Any expense labeled “Travel and Entertainment”. Inter company debt or back payments.


Article Image
Fox News

Meet the hamster ball robot that can fly and crawl

Article Image
The Business Journals

INNO UNDER 25 Arizona is fighting to establish itself as a tech haven, and these young entrepreneurs are blazing the trail

Article Image
Interesting Engineering

This autonomous robot rolls to its destination and flies over obstacles

Article Image
sUAS News

AZ Robotics Company Launches New Technology Combining Rover/Drone Capabilities

Article Image
Internation Construction

Revolute Robotics introduces dual concept robot


Owners bonus
Stack Owner's Bonus & Rewards!

Members get an extra 10% shares in addition to rewards below!


Multiple investments in an offering cannot be combined to qualify for a larger campaign perk. Get rewarded for investing more into Revolute Robotics.



Richard Koch

12 days ago

The TEAL2 sUAS has FLIR bolted on. FLIR would represent a COTS solution to be integrated into the platform. I'm wondering whether any COTS sensors (or sensor suites) will become unavailable should another supplier attempt a non-compete action (not that I'm saying Red Cat is doing it). Is this of any concern because a wide range of suppliers are available? Or are you having to develop any sensors in house?



Andrii Pryskoka

a month ago

Hello, Collin! It is Andrii again. Thank you for Your response. I wrote a letter via your Company's email. This is about possible co-op, please check it whenever You have time. Thank you!



Andrii Pryskoka

a month ago

Hi! I've learned about your robots and to me it appeared very promising. Have you considered the possibility to deploy them to Ukraine? There is a Switzerland-sized territory full of mines and self-made explosives. Also, as it goes from description, this robots use LIDAR to scan the terrain and then built something like 3D model of area. Can you tell how is this precise in finding explosives? Also, are your robots good at pushing through complicated terrains like thick forests?



Asher Hamilton

2 months ago

I would love to hear about Revolute's traction and trajectory, What are your biggest accomplishments so far, and how are you going to leverage these accomplishments to generate revenue.



Richard Koch

3 months ago

..motion... And, could the interiors of pipelines or fuel cells be accomplished? Is there a spark issue with the motors and electrical system(s)? Sorry, I'm done.



Richard Koch

3 months ago

What type of sensor suites will you host? Take security for instance. Would this platform be rolling around on patrol with morion, video and perhaps FLIR-like detection of evildoers? Could the robot detect the criminal element, take then up station at a safe altitude above the perpetrator, paint them electronically and notify the authorities? Could it then follow at a safe distance (regardless of mode of transportation) all the while squawking grid coordinates and live video to cops or private security for confrontation? Then there would be inspection missions with completely different sensor requirements depending on the application. Photos, video, maybe X-ray a crack under a bridge. How broad is the vision?



W Kim Colich

3 months ago

Hi, who will own the patent or to whom will the rights be assigned? Or do you just have exclusive rights? Thanks for clarifying. Blessings




Cancel anytime before 48 hours before a rolling close or the offering end date.



We want you to succeed and get the most out of your money by offering rewards and memberships!


Your info is your info. We take pride in keeping it that way!


Invest in over 200 start-ups and collectibles!

With Regulation A+, a non-accredited investor can only invest a maximum of 10% of their annual income or 10% of their net worth per year, whichever is greater. There are no restrictions for accredited investors.

With Regulation Crowdfunding, non-accredited investors with an annual income or net worth less than $124,000, are limited to invest a maximum of 5% of the greater of those two amounts. For those with an annual income and net worth greater than $124,000, he/she is limited to investing 10% of the greater of the two amounts.

At the close of an offering, all investors whose funds have “cleared” by this time will be included in the disbursement. At this time, each investor will receive an email from StartEngine with their Countersigned Subscription Agreement, which will serve as their proof of purchase moving forward.

Please keep in mind that a company can conduct a series of “closes” or withdrawals of funds throughout the duration of the campaign. If you are included in that withdrawal period, you will be emailed your countersigned subscription agreement and proof of purchase immediately following that withdrawal.

StartEngine assists companies in raising capital, and once the offering is closed, we are no longer involved with whether the company chooses to list shares on a secondary market, or what occurs thereafter. Therefore, StartEngine has no control or insight into your investment after the close of the live offering. In addition, we are not permitted to provide financial advice. You may want to contact a financial professional to discuss possible investment outcomes.

For Regulation Crowdfunding, investors are able to cancel their investment at any point throughout the campaign up until 48 hours before the closing of the offering. Note: If the company does a rolling close, they will post an update to their current investors, giving them the opportunity to cancel during this timeframe. If you do not cancel within this 5-day timeframe, your funds will be invested in the company, and you will no longer be able to cancel the investment. If your funds show as ‘Invested’ on your account dashboard, your investment can no longer be canceled.

For Regulation A+, StartEngine allows for a four-hour cancelation period. Once the four-hour window has passed, it is up to each company to set their own cancelation policy. You may find the company’s cancelation policy in the company’s offering circular.

Once your investment is canceled, there is a 10-day clearing period (from the date your investment was submitted). After your funds have cleared the bank, you will receive your refund within 10 business days.

Refunds that are made through ACH payments can take up to 10 business days to clear. Unfortunately, we are at the mercy of the bank, but we will do everything we can to get you your refund as soon as possible. However, every investment needs to go through the clearing process in order to get sent back to the account associated with the investment.

Both Title III (Regulation Crowdfunding) and Title IV (Reg A+) help entrepreneurs crowdfund capital investments from unaccredited and accredited investors. The differences between these regulations are related to the investor limitations, the differing amounts of money companies are permitted to raise, and differing disclosure and filing requirements. To learn more about Regulation Crowdfunding, click here, and for Regulation A+, click here.


Get To Know Us

Our Team



Important Message

Unless indicated otherwise with respect to a particular issuer, all securities-related activity is conducted by regulated affiliates of StartEngine: StartEngine Capital, LLC, a funding portal registered here with the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and here as a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), or StartEngine Primary, LLC, a broker-dealer registered with the SEC and FINRASIPC . You can review the background of our broker-dealer and our investment professionals on FINRA’s BrokerCheck here. StartEngine Secondary is an alternative trading system regulated by the SEC and operated by StartEngine Primary, LLC, a broker dealer registered with the SEC and FINRA. StartEngine Primary, LLC is a member of SIPC and explanatory brochures are available upon request by contacting SIPC at (202) 371-8300.

Investment opportunities posted and accessible through the site are of three types:

1) Regulation A offerings (JOBS Act Title IV; known as Regulation A+), which are offered to non-accredited and accredited investors alike. These offerings are made through StartEngine Primary, LLC (unless otherwise indicated). 2) Regulation D offerings (Rule 506(c)), which are offered only to accredited investors. These offerings are made through StartEngine Primary, LLC. 3) Regulation Crowdfunding offerings (JOBS Act Title III), which are offered to non-accredited and accredited investors alike. These offerings are made through StartEngine Capital, LLC. Some of these offerings are open to the general public, however there are important differences and risks.

Any securities offered on this website have not been recommended or approved by any federal or state securities commission or regulatory authority. StartEngine and its affiliates do not provide any investment advice or recommendation and do not provide any legal or tax advice with respect to any securities. All securities listed on this site are being offered by, and all information included on this site is the responsibility of, the applicable issuer of such securities. StartEngine does not verify the adequacy, accuracy or completeness of any information. Neither StartEngine nor any of its officers, directors, agents and employees makes any warranty, express or implied, of any kind whatsoever related to the adequacy, accuracy, or completeness of any information on this site or the use of information on this site. See additional general disclosures here.
By accessing this site and any pages on this site, you agree to be bound by our Terms of use and Privacy Policy, as may be amended from time to time without notice or liability.

Canadian Investors Investment opportunities posted and accessible through the site will not be offered to Canadian resident investors. Potential investors are strongly advised to consult their legal, tax and financial advisors before investing. The securities offered on this site are not offered in jurisdictions where public solicitation for offerings is not permitted; it is solely your responsibility to comply with the laws and regulations of your country of residence.

California Investors Only – Do Not Sell My Personal Information

(800-317-2200). StartEngine does not sell personal information. For all customer inquiries, please write to

StartEngine’s Reg A+ offering is made available through StartEngine Crowdfunding, Inc. This investment is speculative, illiquid, and involves a high degree of risk, including the possible loss of your entire investment. For more information about this offering, please view StartEngine’s offering circular and risk associated with this offering.

StartEngine Marketplace

The availability of company information does not indicate that the company has endorsed, supports, or otherwise participates with StartEngine.

None of the information displayed on or downloadable from (the 'Website') represents a recommendation, offer, or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any security. It also does not constitute an offer to provide investment advice or service. StartEngine does not (1) make any recommendations or otherwise advise on the merits or advisability of a particular investment or transaction, or (2) assist in the determination of fair value of any security or investment, or (3) provide legal, tax, or transactional advisory services.

All investment opportunities are based on indicated interest from sellers and will need to be confirmed.

Investing in private company securities is not suitable for all investors. An investment in private company securities is highly speculative and involves a high degree of risk. It should only be considered a long-term investment. You must be prepared to withstand a total loss of your investment. Private company securities are also highly illiquid, and there is no guarantee that a market will develop for such securities. Each investment also carries its own specific risks, and you should complete your own independent due diligence regarding the investment. This includes obtaining additional information about the company, opinions, financial projections, and legal or other investment advice. Accordingly, investing in private company securities is appropriate only for those investors who can tolerate a high degree of risk and do not require a liquid investment.

StartEngine Marketplace (“SE Marketplace”) is a website operated by StartEngine Primary, LLC (“SE Primary”), a broker-dealer that is registered with the SEC and a member of FINRA and the SIPC. StartEngine Bulletin Board ("SE BB") is a bulletin board platform that advertises interest in shares of private companies that previously executed Reg CF or Reg A offerings. SE BB enables shareholders to communicate interest in potential sales of shares in private companies and investors to discover, review, and potentially invest in private companies. As a bulletin board platform, SE BB provides a venue for investors to access information about private company offerings and connect with potential sellers. SE BB is distinct and separate from StartEngine Secondary (“SE Secondary”), which is an SEC-registered Alternative Trading System (ATS) operated by SE Primary. SE Secondary facilitates the trading of securities by matching orders between buyers and sellers and facilitating executions of trades on the platform. While a security may be displayed on the bulletin board, these securities will be subject to certain restrictions which may prevent the ability to buy and sell these securities in a timely manner, if at all. Even if a security is qualified to be displayed on the bulletin board, there is no guarantee an active trading market for the securities will ever develop, or if developed, be maintained. You should assume that you may not be able to liquidate your investment for some time or be able to pledge these shares as collateral.